Houshang Javid, who has traveled to Mahabad as the secretary of Avae Vahdat Festival, in an interview with KurdPress, briefly reviewed the history and antiquity of musical instruments in Kurdistan, calling it the capital of the daf in the world and Hasan zirak , the knight of Kurdish music.
Javid believes that everywhere in Iran, from birth to death, music has a strange role in human life, and in fact, music is intertwined with the lives of Iranians.
In Lorestan, at the time of death, the Lors play a special song for mourning with an instrument and drum, which is called (Ro, Ro). This is also the case in Azerbaijan, with the difference that the instruments are removed and they are content to sing.
In Kurdistan, Kermanshah and Ilam, there is also Chamri and it is a special ritual of mourning in which the song of mourning is played in mourning for the lost loved ones.
He adds: “Music plays a role even after death.” This common role among all ethnic groups can be unifying. Of course, how to create a common understanding can be the place for new questions and research.
Houshang Javid emphasizes that there are the most ancient forms of Iranian music in Kurdistan. In particular, its vocal part leads us to unknown ages that are not yet comprehensible and recognizable to humanity. These songs are based on ancient verses.
He says: “In the roles of Persepolis, there is a role of a man behind Dariush who has his index finger on his throat and this image was always interesting to me, until I came to Kurdistan and realized that in Marivan An old man named Amin Manouchehri was the last to do so.
In fact, this action was called (Ballooning) that by moving the index finger under the throat, sounds were made that are the original form of writing. Even today, hooray singers place their finger next to the throat while chanting to change their voice. Undoubtedly, this is the primary form of vocal writing in Iran.
Mr. Javid continues: In a study at UCLA, the United States examined world songs over a period of time. The results of this study show that the most melodious and rhythmic songs are related to Iran.
Because writing is considered important in the country and also the vocal range of Iran has the best writings. Examining the vocal and instrumental forms, we find that the rhythms played with the Tombak go back to ancient times.
He states: The history of Ney in Kurdish areas has a long history. The discovery of an old reed near Hawler in Kurdistan, which dates back to 4,500 BC, indicates the 6,000-year-old music of the Kurds.
Al-Masudi writes in describing the Kurds; “The Kurds have instruments with which they tame and tame sheep, and this shows the importance of shepherding in that period. ”
In fact, Livestock and its growth and development among the Kurds in the millennia BC and the mystery of shepherding were mixed with the reed instrument. Even today, this art is seen among the shepherds, in a way that they perform the counting of the herd rhythmically and with a special authority.
The importance of the shepherds’ secrets and codes is significant even in protecting the land and preventing the enemy from entering.
The shepherds were scattered in the mountains, and when the shepherds’ horsemen arrived, the shepherds announced the number of horsemen entering with the sound of a reed. This mysterious song was passed from one shepherd to another, and the villagers heard the shepherds singing in the highlands and noticed the entry of strangers into the area.
He points to the use of Ney in the treatment of diseases and says: “The Ney instrument in Kurdish music was even included in music therapy, so that for a person with tuberculosis, the Ney instrument was played and a beat singer was also played.” He sings humorous beats and songs to make the sick person suffering from tuberculosis depression laugh.
All of this shows the importance of Ney in the region, which has simply become as widely used as possible.
Houshang Javid, referring to the Dozaleh instrument, says: The Dozaleh instrument ((Qushmeh; in Kermanji) used by the Kurds of Kermanj Khorasan, and with this action, they began to destroy and fall mountains on their enemies.
In the north of Khorasan, when the Russians invaded the country, Yar Mohammad Khan Sahamat al-Dawlah placed 20 women on both sides of the mountain and at the entrances of Dargaz, because there were many falling stones in that area. And disables them. This was one of the sound traps used in instrumental military operations.
Houshang Javid, referring to the Dozaleh instrument, says: Dozaleh instrument or (Ghoshmeh; in Kermanji) which was used by the Kurds of Kermanj Khorasan and with this they tried to destroy and fall the mountain on their enemies.
In northern Khorasan, when the Russians invaded the country, Yar Mohammad Khan Sahamat al-Dawlah placed 20 Dozaleh Nawaz on either side of the mountain and at the entrance to Dargaz. Because there were many falling rocks in that area, playing Dozaleh, the mountain fell on the Russian army and prevented them from entering. This method was considered as one of the sound traps with the help of an instrument in military operations.
The researcher points out that the sculptures found include tanbourine players from 4,500 to 1,500 BC and show that the region’s Kurds (6,500 years ago) Izeh (close to Talesh) have been playing the tanbourine and the theme of the songs has been more prayer.
on the other hand; We see the history of the daf by referring to the lithograph of Kol Farah in the Mal Amir region in Izeh, the last Kurdish base in ancient Iran, where daf-playing women are praying. And Kurdistan and the Kurdish regions can rightly be considered the capital of Daf in the world.
In general, wind instruments and percussion used by the Kurds all have an ancient history and the use of Tanbur, Ney, Daf dates back to those times and it can be said that the oldest part of Iranian music is based on inscriptions, lithographs or Written leather documents, etc. belong to the western part of Iran and all Kurdish and Lor regions.
Mr. Javid emphasizes that Iranian music today is a huge range of all Iranian music and it can be said that Kurdish music has helped and influenced this range of Iranian music. This influence has even pervaded world music and its instruments, according to available documents.
Evliya Çelebi wrote in her travelogue; ” Abdal Khan lived in Van and lived as a drummer, sitting around 6 drums and beating drums at the same time.
The manifestation of this instrument Abdal Khan is now manifested in Western music and jazz drum. The history of this instrument in Europe dates back to the time of the Crusades. “Europeans are familiar with this instrument and welcome it.”
He states: “Kurdish music has a special place, but due to the lack of complete and comprehensive research in all Kurdish regions, this process has not been completed.”
For example, in one region of Iranian Kurdistan, songs are louder, such as the Avroman region, which rhythms with clapping and drumming, and the other region uses stringed and bowed instruments that move away from their original and traditional state over time and accept some changes. have taken.
Today, Kurdish Kamancheh, introduced to the region by the Lorians of India, is less played. Also, Tanbur is now limited to Kermanshah and part of Lorestan and part of Wind instruments such as Balaban is allocated to another region.
Javid emphasizes that in the old treatises it is stated that the history of making Balaban dates back to the Safavid era and its maker is considered to be a Shirazi person who is used by the Kurds today.
In fact, Iranian construction with a very beautiful theme that the Kurds, as the custodians of this instrument and its cultural heritage, have passed down to this day. Later, this instrument became popular among the Turks.
He continues: In the case of the Daf instrument, which is a prayer-praise instrument, and Dohol, we come across strange names in the Torah. Because the Kurdistan region has long been associated with the Assyrians.
The Qur’an also mentions that the People of the Book are respected, so it is not easy to ignore those texts, and we accept that these were prayer instruments from the beginning, and the daf is still used as a prayer instrument in the western region of the country.
Regarding the impact of globalization on music, the music researcher says: Unfortunately, the Westerners have introduced the new century as the century of the death of cultures. But many countries have not been involved in this issue and have not reached a proper understanding of this issue.
The plan of increasing acceleration proposed by the West and the goal of absorbing and eradicating the culture of the East in the West, from which figures such as Michael Jackson and rap and trance music are formed, who constantly plan in this direction, calling for the death of cultures. Are homogenization and expansion of monoculture, and the sound of colonial chains is long overdue.
Mr. Javid emphasizes that the countries of the region have not adopted a comprehensive cultural plan for confrontation and solution, and have taken a more authoritarian and submissive attitude.
In Turkey, where the Baghlama or Tanbur Kurdi periodical was made, there were 7 types of instruments, but today they have moved towards Western songs. Iraq also has an amalgam of Arabic music from Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and even Turkey, which is not the identity of Iraqi music. Other countries in the region, such as Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, also have limited music, yet they are influenced by Western music.
He states: “In the meantime, Iran is in a favorable situation and in the country, various strategies have been adopted to preserve folk music.”
Paying attention to music and instruments such as Daf, tambourine, music development, festivals of dhikr and dhikr, etc. are among these measures. I even invited artists such as Hassan Dozaleh and Ghader Abdollahzadeh to the national music festivals for the first time to introduce their works.
Javid continues: “Fortunately, the music of this region is known and it is very much welcomed by the youth.” At the 2001 Ritual Music Festival, artist Hassan Dozaleh played Dozaleh with one hand and paid military tribute with the other.
Later, after studying historical texts, I realized that Dozaleh was used in Iranian military music, and I was surprised by the work of Hassan Dozaleh, and I think that his sense brought me closer to those historical documents.
In that festival, the artist “Hassan Dozaleh” was selected for the ritual festival of 1380 and was introduced as the top musician of the country’s ritual music. Also in 1388, he was introduced as the most prominent figure of Iranian music.
He says: regional and provincial officials do not pay attention to the performance and the peak of artists’ art.
Abroad, the artist can make a living by publishing his work, but an artist like “Hassan Dozaleh”, who is a first-rate figure in the country’s music and has been mentioned in many music books, is even a generation today. The youth does not know him and the authorities do not take any action.
Referring to the plan to honor veteran artists, he says: The plan to honor veterans is established by the Veterans Music Organization. This organization, with all its officials, has not yet taken the initiative to pursue the case of veteran artists, as if the artist did not know about this organization, in fact, there is no official who should pursue such cases.
He emphasizes: Master Ghader Abdollahzadeh, known as (Qaleh Mehreh), was known as the treasure of Kurdish music and master of local music. But when I met him, he was knocking on the corner of Shamshal Street.
So we invited him, who was 77 years old at the time, to the Epic Music Festival in 1974, and we recorded a number of his works in the studio of the Arts Center, and he received a fee for participating in the festival.
I remember that at the Sanandaj Music Festival, he played a song called (Sirvan Ao Berdi), which is a very famous piece about the mother-in-law who lost her child in the Sirvan River, and ” Ghader Abdollahzadeh, but it remained in the mind and memory of Qala Mehrah.
Also, Master “Hasan Zirek”, who can rightly be considered the knight of Kurdish music, is known among all Kurds and is truly unrivaled.
They have been true lovers of music and unprecedented that in any century one can emerge as a genius in an arena that genius is “Hasan Zirek”. A public figure who is associated with all sections of society.
As a music researcher, I believe that popular figures such as “Hasan Zirek” and “Qaleh Mehreh” were accepted by the general public, and this is the secret of the permanence of these Kurdish music models, which I see despite the fact that the youth The Kurds are very hard-working in the field of music, but they are not able to compete with the immortals and artists.
Javid continues: Kurdish music artists such as the late Abbas Kamandi, Shahram Nazeri who have done a lot of research on Kurdish music or Professor Mohammad Mamle whose art with all his artistry and genius is a heavy music specific to society, Ali Merdan and Sayed Ali Asghar Kurdistani, who have been unrivaled in terms of singing power, are all models that will last forever, and the secret of their permanence has been their love of music.
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